Anti Ahmadiyya Movement in Islam
21st January 1999



British Imperialism brought many countries of Africa and Asia under its way in the 19th century. One significant aspect of the growth of colonization was its sinister collaboration with militant Jewish nationalism. Jews had been drifting into England since the days of Cromwell, who wanted to bring back those Jews who had been expelled from England in 1290 by Edward I with a view to obtaining economic advantage for England.1 During the French campaign in Palestine in 1788, Napoleon recruited Jews from Asian and African countries into his army. He advanced the idea of setting up a Jewish Kingdom in Jerusalem under France’s aegis mainly for strategic consideration.2

By 1839, Jewish restoration in the Holy Land was a burning topic. Popular interest had become so intense that the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, after sending a special commission to the Holy Land to report on conditions there, addressed a Memorandum to the Protestant Monarchs of Europe on the subject of Restoration of the Jewish People to the Land of Palestine. From this date onwards a pro-Jewish Palestinian debate ran parallel in the London Times with the agitation over the Eastern question.3

Liberal Englishmen continued to raise their voices in favour of Jews. A bill removing discrimination against them was passed in the House of Commons in certain occasions (1833,1834,1836) which failed in the House of Lords. Nevertheless, an act was passed permitting them to hold the local office of Sheriff. David Solomons was elected Sheriff of London in 1855, and two years later Moses Montefoire was elected to the same office, whereupon Queen Victoria knighted him. In 1858, a bill was passed which permitted Jews to enter the British Parliament.4

The Jewish idea was propagated by varied agencies based in America and other parts of Europe. Among them were the Furturist, Anglo-Israelites and Freemasons. They worked under different covers for the Jewish cause and influenced the public opinion in a discreet manner. Futurists supported the return of scattered Jews to Palestine on the basis of certain Biblical prophecies. Protestant theology, in particular, rested on the belief that the world of mankind was evolving towards a millennium in which holiness was to be triumphant everywhere, and that a primary pre-requisite to this happy eventuality was the ‘return of God’s Chosen People, the Jews to the Holy Land.’ That Christ would return, sit on David’s literal throne in old Jerusalem and rule over his peculiar people who would accept him as their Messiah. The magnificent Temple of Ezekiel’s vision would be built on the ancient temple now occupied by the Mosque of Omer (Al Aqsa Mosque) and the ceremonies of ancient Judaism would be resumed.

Supporting their position with direct quotations from Biblical prophecy, a large group of earnest men, divines, statesmen and writers set themselves to be the instruments to achieve the desired Jewish end.5

Connected with the destiny of the Jews is the theory of so called Lost Ten Tribes of Israel. It was said to be a sharp reaction to the ideas of a few western liberals and ‘Assimilationists’ who denied the existence of a Jewish nation altogether. However, in the wake of the irresistible liberal sweep, which was supposed to de-Judaize the Jews, Anglo-Israelism was responsible to give a big momentum to Judaizing process.6

Most prominent among those who claimed that the ‘lost’ Tribes were the British or Anglo-Isrealites of England and Canada were the members of Anglo American Federation. It was argued that the British Commonwealth of Nations were descended from the ten tribes of Israel, that Americans were the seed of Manasseh, while Englishmen were the seed of Ephraim, that the United States of America and Canada were peopled with the Covenant people; that the Anglo Saxon people were the descendants of the northern tribes of Israel and were in possession of all the blessings promised to Israel in the latter days; that the David’s throne was promised in perpetuity by God and that a world state would emerge under the House of David in the days to come.7

Every attitude of the aggressive young Imperialism, which the Anglo-Saxon was erecting, became tinctured with Hebrew philosophy. So completely was it absorbed that a large section of the English people began to look upon themselves as being actually descended from Israelites. This conviction on the part of a large part of the British public became so great that it resulted in the forming of British Israel World Federation, at one time claiming over five million members, and including such eminent personages as Queen Victoria and King Edward VII.8

Freemasonry played a crucial role in the furtherance of Jewish cause in the garb of secrecy. The Jewish penetration into the European secret societies ran parallel to the growth of Freemasonry. The building of the Solomon Temple symbolized the Jewish return to Palestine. A large number of statesmen, politicians, civil and military officials, diplomats and traders gathered in Masonic lodges of different secret rites and denominations to hatch pro-Jewish plots. Masonic temples were erected in almost all important cities of the US, Britain, France and Italy. In India, Freemasonry took roots in Bengal and spread rapidly in its other parts long before the War of Independence of 1857.9

Freemasons and Jews directed most of their plots against the solidarity of the Turkish Empire. Masons of higher degrees found native agents to launch subversive activities under the cover of secret societies. Disraeli, a Jew by birth, who became the Prime Minister of Britain in 1877. Made a reference to the working of the secret societies and their clandestine operations in some parts of the world. These societies functioned in and outside the Ottoman Empire and were mostly based in Geneva, Paris, London, Brussels, and after the British occupation of Egypt in 1882, in Cairo. They encouraged militant nationalism and propagated ideas of secession of Arab lands from the Turkish ‘domination.’

George Antonius says that the first organized attempt to introduce nationalist ideas was made by five young men who had been educated at the Syrian Protestant College in Beirut. They were all Christians. Around 1875, a secret society was formed and a movement was started n collaboration with the Freemasonry which had been making inroads in Syrian society on the typical European pattern.10

Jewish-backed agencies and secret societies channeled their efforts for the revival of Judaism and restoration of scattered Jews to Palestine. They attacked the Christian dogmas in the wildest manner. Christian missionaries were severely condemned and their activities ridiculed. The philosophical ideas of Jewish mysticism and theories forwarded by Jewish scholars were given much publicity. Islam posed a direct challenge to Jewish militancy. A tirade against Islam was immediately launched to loosen its hold and check its spread and growth.

Agents of Jewish agencies hired natives to corrupt fundamental religious beliefs and to start movements in the name of revivalism. Muslims of the world looked to some of these ‘revivalist’ movements as rays of hope, without realizing the harm they could do through their secret workings. They welcomed the new ideas of rationalism, nationalism and modernism without examining their implications for the world of Islam.

Jewish nationalism spread widely in 1850s. At the close of 19th century and with the publication of Theoder Herzls’s book, The Jewish State and the subsequent Basle Congress of 1897, Zionism became international movement of the Jews aimed to capture Palestine as their homeland.

On Indian Soil:

India had a great political and economic significance for the British Imperialism. It is an interesting subject to examine the Jewish activities on the soil of India. Many civil servants, diplomats, military officials and traders espoused the Zionist cause in early 20th century in order to strengthen the British Empire and to secure dismemberment of the Ottoman Empire. Collaboration with the Zionists was the salient trait of the British foreign policy. The London based Anglo-Jewish Association protected the Jewish interests in Britain and its colonies and it did all times receive ‘the most ready and cordial cooperation from the British Government in office and extended full support to Jews'.11

We find some mysterious links between Zionism and certain movements that arose in Asia and the Middle East in the name of religious revivalism. The Ahmadiyya of India and Bahaism of Iran, Freemasonry and Theosophist movements had links with secret Jewish agencies. Masonic and Theosophist institutions were established in the USA, Britain and its colonies, mainly by the Jewish agents. Colonel Alcott, a freemason of questionable past, was imprisoned in America for circulating immoral literature, came to India in 1879 with Madam Blavatsky, the widow of a Russian General, behind whom there also lay an eventful and dubious past. They preached atheistic ideas of Buddhism and established a Center of Theosophy in Madras. In their periodical, the ‘Theosophist’, they praised Buddhism and Hinduism and forcefully condemned Christianity and Christian missionaries. They left for Europe in 1884 after establishing a strong movement in India. At some point while travelling through Switzerland, Germany and Italy, Blavatsky offered her services to the Russian Secret Service, but they did not accept it.12 She was a freemason of 32 degree and was held in high esteem in Masonic circles. Her book Isis Unveiled is considered an excellent Masonic work. Her close associate, Annie Besant, famous for Home Rule movement India, was also an eminent freemason.

Pan Islamic movement of the 19th century owes much to Syed Jamaluddin Afghani. The Persian Revolution (1905), Young Turks Movement of Turkey (1908) and some Egyptian national movements were influenced and inspired by him and his followers. Afghani was a freemason. He used this Jewish institution for propagation of his political beliefs. Mufti Abdu was also a freemason and a confidant of Lord Crommer of Egypt. Afghani was expelled from the Masonic Lodge, Star of East for his political activities and showing disregard to its secret functioning.13

Babism and Bahaism of Iran are strongly pro-Jewish movements. Abdul Baha, in a lecture at a meeting of the Society of Friends, London on 12 January 1913 traced the origin of Bahaism to llluminate, a torchbearer of masonry, founded in Germany in the 18th century. Bahaism worked openly against Islam. Its followers established close relations with Zionists. Bahaullah predicted the return of Jews to Israel in his utterances and revelations. The movement has a powerful base in Israel. After the Iranian Revolution (1979), Bahais have been shifting their centers from Iran to Pakistan.

Bahaism sprang from Shia Iran and Qadianism or Ahmadiyya movement from Sunni India. The origin, growth and religious and political ideas of Qadianism clearly show that its birth was the result of an Imperialist-Zionist conspiracy. Its founder condemns Christianity, declares Jehad abrogated for all time to come, distorts Islamic beliefs and above all declares 900 million Muslims of the world as Kafirs (non believers) and thus outside the pale of Islam. He claims to be a Mujaddid (reformer), Promised Messiah, Mahdi, Nabi and Rasul (prophet) and even Lord Krishna. He preached extreme loyalty for the British Imperialism and incorporated it as an article of faith in his religious creed.

Indian Political Scene

The British predominated the whole of Indian Sub-continent after the fateful War of Independence in 1857. One significant aspect of the war was the role the ulema played in organizing resistance against the British aggressors. The surviving freedom fighters kept the Hills (NW of India) as their bases of operation to launch Jehad against the British rule. Many crushing defeats were inflicted on the British troops, the most important of which was the battle of Ambala in 1863. The mujahidin showed an amazing gallantry and magnificent courage against the British troops.

Baulked on the frontier, the British attempted to destroy the organization of mujahidin in India, believing that it was the transmission of men and supplies via the underground that posed the threat on the Frontier. In a series of trials at Ambala and Patna in 1864 and 1865 respectively, a dozen of most active mujahidin were condemned to various terms of transportation to the Andaman Islands on the charges of conspiring to wage war against the Queen. There was a further wave of arrests in 1868, 1870, and 1871 and trials took place at Rajmahal, Malda, and Patna respectively at which further sentences of transportaion to the Andaman Islands were passed.14 After a series of ruthless persecutions and intense police investigations, the supply organization of the freedom fighters was destroyed.


On 20 September, 1871 Chief Justice Norman of the Calcutta High Court was killed by a Punjabi Muslim, Abdullah. Lord Mayo’s papers showed that he was indirectly influenced by Wahabi ideas and had studied in a mosque known as a Center of Wahabi teaching. Justice Norman was very harsh to the mujahidin. He dismissed appeals against detention under Regulation III of 1818 and was also against to hear appeals against the recent convictions at Patna trails.15

The British turned fiercely on Muslims as their real enemies and used all harsh methods to put an end to the Jehad movement, which "seditious Wahabis" had launched in India.16 On 30 May, 1871 Lord May, who had been an Irish /Secretary in Disraeli’s Ministry, asked a civilian, W.W. Hunter, to write a report on the burning question of the day: Whether the Indian Muslims were compelled by their faith to rebel against the British rule.17 Hunter was given full access to secret official papers for compilation of his report.

Hunter published his report in 1871 under the title The Indian Musalamans: Are they bound in conscience to rebel against the Queen? He discussed the teachings of Islam specially the concept of Jehad, advent of Mahdi and Messiah, problems relating to Jehad movement, the Wahabi concepts and then concluded:

‘The present generation of Musalmans are bound according to their own texts to accept the status quo, but ‘the law and the prophets can be utilized on the side of loyalty as well as on the side of sedition’, and the Musalmans of India are, and have been, for many years, a source of chronic danger to the British Power in India and no one can predict the proposition to which this Rebel Camp (i.e. on the NW Frontier) backed by the Muslim horde from the Westward, might attain under a leader who knows how to wield together the nations of Asia in a crescentado.’.  He further adds: ‘It was hopeless to look for anything like enthusiastic loyalty from our Muhammaden subjects. The whole Koran was based upon the conception of the Musalmans as a conquering and not as a conquered people. The Musalmans of India could always be a source of chronic danger to the British power in India.' 18

Religious Militancy:

Taking advantage of the so-called neutrality of the British in the propagation of religious beliefs as enunciated in the Queen’s Proclamation (1858), many religious adventurers came out in the religious ‘market’ of India with their ‘products'. The Imperialist’s own plantations were the Christian missionaries engaged since long in the tricky game of evangelizing the ‘heathens of India.’ Among Hindu militant organizations, Arya Samaj, Brahmo Samaj and Devsamaj put forth their ambitious programs of revivalism. The Sikhs, Jains, Parsees and Buddhists were comparatively less enthusiastic in propagation of their beliefs. There were also FreeThinkers and Atheists, who condemned religions and advocated the formation of a free society.

Among Muslims many sects and sub-sects sprang. There were Naturists, Ahli Hadith, Ahle Quran (Chakralwis), pacifist Sufis, besides two larger Shia and Sunni groups. The whole Indian society was divided into a large number of hostile groups all of whom were bitterly at war with each other. It helped the Imperialists to maintain their hold on Indian sub-continent.

The Hindu miliitant organization Arya Samaj was founded in 1875 by Mul Shanker, known by his Brahamnical name Swami Dayanand. He was a fanatic Hindu and wandering teacher of militant Hinduism in North India. He condemned idol worship, child marriage, untouchability and some of the practices of orthodox Hinduism in the name of modern enlightenment and preached what he considered to be the pure teachings of the Vedas.19 Arya Samajiksts considered Islam as the chief obstacle in the establishment of a Vedic society in India. Swami died in 1883. He was the author of the notorious book 'Satyarath Parakash'.

Brahmo Samaj was founded by Raja Ram Mohan Roy (1772-1833) with a view to bringing back the prestine beauty of the Vedic religion. He was very much influenced by Christianity. He was on a ‘political’ mission to England where he died in 1833. The movement received a new impetus when Keshib Chander Sen (1838-84), a Bengali Hindu, eloquently praised Jesus Christ as a redeemer and attracted the attention of Christian missionaries. In 1870, he visited England and received a most extraordinary welcome. Many pulpits were thrown open to him. Sen claimed himself an incarnation of Jesus Christ and established his samaj as a reformed Church of Hinduism. Men like Jagdish Chandra Bose and Rabinder Nath Tagore were Brahmo Samajists.

Pandit S.N. Agnihotri founded the Deva Samaj for revival of Hinduism. The Rama Krishna Mission, the Prathna Samaj and the (Bal Ganga Dhar) Tilak Mission were meant to establish the Hindu supremacy in all fields of life. They wanted to establish a Hindu society by eliminating non-Hindus, especially Muslims from India. Tilak revived the Shevaji cult and organized festivals in honour of the Marhatta leader, Shivaji, in southern India.

Christian missionaries had wielded powerful influence during the rule of East India Company. By the Company Charter of 1813, the work of Christian missionaries was encouraged. A Bishop was appointed with his seat at Calcutta, with three arch deacons. The ecclesiastical establishment was to be paid by the Company. There was every encouragement from England for the proselytising activity in India. A Chairman of the Court of Directors of East India Company said in the House of Commons:

‘Providence has entrusted the extensive Empire of Hindustan to England in order that the banner of Christ should wave triumphant from one end of India to the other. Every one must exert all his strength that there may be no dilatoriness on any account in continuing the grand work of making all Indians Christians.’20 By the same Charter of 1813, the ecclesiastical establishment was to be paid for out of the Indian revenues of the Company and it continued to be so down to 1947 while the missionaries acquired finances through voluntary contributions of the supporters of the Missionary Societies.21 During the East India Company’s rule, Christianity was closely interwoven with both commerce and Imperialism. The Christian missions were vanguard of Imperialism to safeguard the interests of Empire. The Trinity of Christianity, Commerce and Colonialism served the cause of the Empire.22

One important factor of the War of Independence of 1857 was the aggressive missionary campaign launched by a few fanatic Christians. After the War, the campaign took a different shape. More emphasis was placed on hiring native agents for sending them in those areas where the missions had since been closed. The Church Missionary Society, London, fielded missionaries into India and sought the Government help to carry out its program.23 There were 21 different Christian Churches operating in the length and breadth of India. Roman Catholics constituted the largest segment of Christian population, over half a million in 1881, followed by Protestants (0.12 million), Baptists (81,000), and followers of Church of England (49,000). Smaller groups viz. Americans, Armenians, Congregationalists, Calvinists, Dissenters, Episcopalians, Independents, Luwtherns, Methodists, Syrian Greeks and Wesleyan Churches preached the Gospels to Indians. The total Christian population in India, including British born and other Europeans was about 2 million at the close of 19th century.24

Muslims’ Response

Muslims of the sub-continent were struggling hard in post-1857 period to get their economic and political rights while the British were bent on their suppression. Sir Syed Ahmad Khan came forward to guide them. His political formula was cooperation with modern education. The orthodox Muslims who hated the British and had been waging a war of liberation on the NW Frontier of India did not accept his view point. Sir Syed’s advocacy of loyalty to the British Government, his naturist interpretation of the Holy Quran, particularly his opinion about the life of Jesus Christ, advent of Mahdi, Jehad, the status of India as Dar-ul-Islam, etc, were bitterly criticized and condemned by the ulema. The prominent ulema of all schools of thought specially the followers of Syed Ahmad Brelevi (the Wahabis), retained their conviction that British Imperialism had forcibly occupied India which was Dar-ul-Islam nor Dar-ul-Harb but simply Dar-ul-Aman (Place of peace).25 Those ulema who opined that India was Dur-ul-Harb never favoured social intercourse with the English. They could not reconcile themselves to the British rule.

Christian missionaries met strong resistance from Muslim ulema. Maulana Rehmatullah of Kirana, Dr. Wazir Khan of Agra, Maulana Abdul Hadi of a Lukhnow, Maulana Ale-Hassan and Maulana Muhammad Ali Bichravi gave befitting replies to the Christian apologists in their numerous writings and addresses. It was mostly a defensive war against the aggressive onslaught of missionaries.

Family of Traitors

Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, the founder of Ahmadiyya movement descended from the Mughal family of the Punjab. His great grandfather Mirza Gul Muhammad was ousted from his ancestral estate of Qadian by the Sikh rulers. He, along with his other family members, took refuge in Baigowal in the Court of Sardar Fateh Singh, then a rival of Ranjit Singh, the ruler of Punjab. When Fateh Singh died, his estate was annexed by Ranjit Singh. Mirza Ghulam Ahmad’s father, Ghulam Murtaza and his uncle, Ghulam Mohyuddin, joined the Sikh army and took active part to suppress the uprisings of the Muslims of Northern India against the Sikh tyrants. Mirza Murtaza killed mujahidin of Syed Ahmad Brelavi in the North West of India and Muslims of Kashmir who rose against the Sikh ascendancy. Ranjit Singh annexed Kashmir in 1818 and Peshawar in 1823.

In recognition of his 'valuable’ services, Ranjit Singh restored five villages of Qadian to him in 1834. Next year Rangjit Singh died. After his death the central authority grew weak and the British influence increased. Mirza Ghulam Murtaza sided with the British and became their trusted henchman in the Sikh darbar. The Sikh came to know of it. They made an attempt to kill him and his brother Ghulam Mohyuddin but were saved by their younger brother Mirza Ghulam Haider.

Sir Lepel Griffin’s book, The Punjab Chiefs 26 compiled to record the sevices of the loyal families of the Punjab during the "mutiny" of 1857, gives the following account of Ghulam Murtaza’s services:

"During the time of Nao Nihal Singh, Sher Singh and the Darbar, Ghulam Murtaza was continually employed on active service. In 1841, he was sent with General Ventura to Mandi and Kulu, and in 1843 to Peshawar in command of an infantry regiment. He distinguished himself in Hazara at the time of insurrection there, and when the rebellion of 1848 broke out, he remained faithful to his Government and fought on its side. His brother Ghulam Muhi-ud-Din also did good services at this time. When Bhai Maharaj Singh was marching with his forces to Multan to the assistance of Diwan Mulraj. Ghulam Muhi-ud-Din with other jagirdars, Langar Khan Sahiwal and Sahib Khan Tiwana raised the Muhammadan population and with the force of Sahib Dayal attacked the rebels and completely defeated them, driving them into the Chenab, where upwards of 600 perished. At the annexation of the Punjab by the British (March 1849), the Jagirs of the family were not restored, but a pension of Rs. 700 was granted to Ghulam Murtaza and his brother and they retained their proprietary rights in Qadian and the neighbouring villages.27

In June 1849, two months after the annexation of the Punjab by the British, Mirza Ghulam Murtaza wrote a letter to J.M. Wilson, Financial Commissioner of the Punjab, requesting him some favour in lieu of the services rendered by him and his family during the annexation of the Punjab. Wilson replied on 11 June 1849:

"I have perused your application reminding me of you and your family’s past services and rights. I am well aware that since the introduction of the British Government you and your family have certainly remained devoted, faithful and steady subjects and that your rights and services which will receive due consideration when a favourable opportunity offers itself.   You must continue to be faithful and devoted subject as in it lies the satisfaction of lthe Government and your welfare."28 The War of Independence of 1857 afforded an opportunity to the loyal servants of the Punjab to render service to their British masters. Sir Lepel Griffin states the services of Mirza family provided to the British during this critical period of our history: ‘The (Mirza) family did excellent services during the Mutiny of 1857. Ghulam Murtaza enlisted many men and his son Ghulam Qadir was serving in the force of General Nicholson when that officer destroyed the mutineers of the 46 Native Infantry who had fled from Sialkot at Trimughat. General Nicholson gave Ghulam Qadir a certificate stating that in 1857 Mirza family showed greater loyalty than any other in the district. 29 General Nicholson faced a very tough resistance from the freedom fighters in Delhi. A.R. Dard states: ‘The impression that loyal and active aid rendered by the family made on the mind of General Nicholson of whom Sir John Lawrence writes in his Mutiny Reports ‘without General Nicholson Delhi could not have fallen’, may be gathered from the following letter which he wrote to Mirza Ghulam Qadir in August 1857, only a month before his death:   "As you and your family have helped the Government in the suppression of the Mutiny of 1857 at TrimuGhat, MirThal and other places with the greatest devotion and loyalty, and have proved yourselves entirely faithful to the British Government, and also have helped Government at your own expense with 50 sawars and horses, therefore, in recognition of your loyalty and bravery this parwana is addressed to you, which please keep with yourself. The Government and its officials will always have due regard for your services and rights, and for the devotion you have shown to the Government. After the suppression of the insurgents, I will look to the welfare of your family. I have written to Mr. Nisbet, Deputy Commissioner, Gurdaspur, drawing his attention to you services." 30 At the fateful end of the War of 1857, Mirza Ghulam Murtaza was awarded a khilat worth Rs.200 and a certificate from his British masters. He was also given a chair at the Governor’s darbar.

Following is the text of the commendatory letter written by Robert Cust, Commissioner of Lahore, to Mirza Ghulam Murtaza on 20 September 1858:

"As you have rendered great help in enlisting sawars and supplying horses to Government in the Mutiny up to date and thereby gained the favour of Government. A Khilat worth Rs.200 is presented to you in recognition of good services and as a reward for you loyalty.
Moreover, in accordance with the wishes of Chief Commissioner as conveyed in his letter No.576 dated 10th August, 1858, this parwana is addressed to you as a token of satisfaction of the government for your fidelity and repute." 31
Sir Zafarfullah states that Mirza Ghulam Murtaza took up military service under Maharaja Ranjit Singh and won distinctions in some campaigns. Later, he and his elder son, Mirza Ghulam Qadir, rendered meritorious services to the British, which was duly appreciated by the authorities.32

In 1876, Mirza Ghulam Murtaza died.33 On his death, Mirza Ghulam Qadir, his elder son wrote a letter to Robert Egerton, Financial Commissioner of the Punjab, intimating his father’s death and offering services of his family for the British Imperialism. He asked some favour on the basis of his services, Egerton’s reply of 29 June, 1876 to Ghulam Qadir is quoted from Mirza Ghuam Ahmad’s book Kashful Ghata:


Mirza Ghulam Ahmad was born on 13 February 1835 at Qadian. At the age of 6, he was put in the charge of a private tutor who gave him coaching in the Holy Quran and Persian language. At the age of 10, an Arabic teacher taught him Arabic language and its grammar. At the age of 17, a third teacher was employed who gave him lessons in Arabic, syntax, logic and medicine. 35

From the early life, his father, who had been yearning passionately to regain his lost estate by serving British, engaged him in his own line of work, which consisted mainly in looking after the agricultural interests of the family. Mirza Ghulam Ahmad knocked about the courts in the vain pursuit of regaining the lost estate of Qadian.36 He failed badly and was regarded by his father a good-for-nothing. At last in 1864 his father secured him the petty job of an Ahalmad (clerk) in Sialkot Courts which he accepted. During his stay in Sialkot he appeared in a law examination but badly failed in it. 37

He stayed for 4 years (1864-68) in Sialkot. There he came in close contact with Christian missionaries, especially Scotch clerics, with whom he exchanged views on religious and political subjects. Christian missionaries had swarmed the Punjab after the War of 1857 as that region enjoyed an important place in the British colonial policy. 38

In post-Mutiny period, Christian missionaries had been actively studying the main religious, social, economic, and political causes of the ‘Mutiny’ and were analysing the emerging trends in Indian politics in order to play a decisive role in the colonial game.39 During the years 1858 to 1870 various studies were conducted and missionary conferences were organized to discuss these questions. One such conference was held in December 1862 in the Punjab. It was attended by 35 Christian societies and denominations as well as high civil and military officers and great number of influential men, although there was a good deal of discussion in official circles whether such a conference should be convened.40

In 1869, a private commission consisting of missionary heads visited India to ascertain the causes of the ‘Mutiny’ and suggest ways for the consolidation of the Empire. The commission visited may places, conducted meetings with senior British officials occupying high administrative and military posts and held discussions with officials of Secret Service to have first hand knowledge of religo-political problems that posed a potent threat to the British rule in India. As a result of it, a conference was held at London in 1870. Besides the representatives of the commission, it was attended by prominent missionary heads. The commission and the missionaries submitted their separate reports. Subsequently both these reports were published for private use as a secret and confidential document under the title: The Arrival of the British Empire in India.41 An extract from the report is quoted below which gives the need of a prophet,42 who could serve the nefarious political designs of British Imperialism.

During the time the British agents were in search of loyalists, Mirza was busy developing close friendship with Rev. Butler M.A., a Scotch missionary head at Sialkot. They met frequently to hold discussions and exchange ideas on theology and political problems faced by the British Government in India. Butler held him in high esteem and openly displayed respect for him,43 although it would have been hardly expected from a foreign missionary head, a scion of the ruling class. Mirza Mahmud Ahmad, Mirza’s son and the head of the Qadiani community from 1914 to 1965, gives the nature of his father’s relations with Rev. Butler in the following words: The year 1868 proved decisive for Mirza. Muhammad Saleh, an Arab happened to come to India on some mission stated to be a political one. The political situation at that time was alarming due to the activities of the Wahabis. The presence of an Arab ‘activist’ in the strategic region of the Punjab could ensue problem for the British. The Punjab Police arrested him on the charges of spying and violation of Emigration Act.45 H.E. Perkins, DC Sialkot Courts, started investigations. Mirza was employed as an interpreter of Arabic. He strongly argued and defended the British rule in India during his argumentation with the Arab. Through his eloquence, he proved his worth in the eyes of his British master. Perkins found in him a very useful and loyal agent who could serve the cause of the Empire if inducted for the job. Perkins was a freemason and member of the Lodge of Hope, Lahore. Mirza left the job at Sialkot Court in 1868 without any obvious reason and settled down in Qadian.

Perkins ordered that the Courts should be closed as a mark of respect, the day Mirza left for Qadian.46

In 1868, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad’s mother Chirgh Bibi alias Ghaseeti died. He had to depend exclusively on his father to get money to make both ends meet. He undertook journey to Dalhousie and other places to attend courts. Those were very difficult days for him. He calmly faced all hardships and never lost sight of his sinister plan. The death of Mirza Ghulam Murtaza in 1876 resulted in still greater hardships for his sons, Mirza Ghulam Qadir and Mirza Ghulam Ahmad. During his lifetime Ghulam Murtaza had usurped the share of property of Qadian which belonged to his collateral relatives. After his death, Ghulam Qadir retained the property. Mirza Ghulam Ahmad was his accomplice. An year after Ghulam Murtaza’s death (1877), Mirza Ghaus, the son of Mirza Qasim Beg, who was a legal heir of about half of the ancestral estate of Qadian and had been deprived of his share by Ghulam Murtaza, sued in the Court. Since he knew that Mirza brothers would not agree to give his due share to him, he sold out his share of property to Mirza Azam Beg, an Assistant Commissioner in Lahore. With the financial support of Azam Beg, he won the case in the Punjab Chief Court, the final appellate authority in civil and criminal cases. Mirza brothers were left with no alternative except to make the plea in their defense that they were bound to follow Mughal customs and traditions and not Islamic laws of inheritance in transfer and sale of their ancestral property.  It was a shrewd attempt on the part of Mirza Ghulam Qadir and Mirza Ghulam Ahmed to deprive Mirza Ghaus of his genuine share of property.  Mirza Ghulam Ahmed, who subsequently claimed to be a prophet (Nabi) and a ‘champion’ of Islam, preferred to follow family customs and not Islamic laws to usurp the share of Mirza Ghaus’ property. According to traditions, Mirza Ghaus could only sell the property if he had to arrange the marriage of his son or had any other justifiable need. Since he was issue less and no other genuine need existed, he could not sell his property to others. The court rejected their plea and decided the case in favour of Mirza Ghaus.

The prolonged litigation pushed Mirza family on the verge of financial disaster. Ghulam Qadir could not survive the humiliation and loss of property and died in 1883. The control of the remaining property went into the hands of his widow. Mirza Ghulam Ahmad had a little voice in family affairs. He was busy in carving out his own empire.

Mirza Ghulam Ahmad says he led a miserable life after the death of his father. He was virtually a pauper and an utterly disappointed person. His elder brother controlled the whole property and used its income for his own well being and refused to give him a few rupees even to pay the subscription of a journal. Ghulam Qadir’s wife was equally harsh to him and looked down upon him. The wife of Mirza Ghulam Ahmed, Hurmat Bibi alias 'Phajjey di maan', had also a very difficult time with him as he suffered from ill health, psychological abnormalities and financial distress. The treatment meted out to him during these formative years had a great bearing on his future life and gives an insight into his future claims.

By the end of 1880, he was actively busy in compilation of his book, Braheen-i-Ahmadiyya. The death of his elder brother Mirza Ghulam Qadir in 1883 left the field open for him. He swiftly moved towards his desired end, the claim of prophethood. Fealty to the British Raj and condemnation of Jehad 47 were the hallmark of his career. He attended to his assigned job with full devotion and had always been proud of the services he rendered for the consolidation of the colonial Empire in India and other parts of the world.

Conscious Impostor

Mirza Ghulam Ahmad very cleverly launched his project. To start with his business, he put forth some challenges and revelations claimed to have been received from God. The absurdity and incoherent nature of his utterances backed by his admission of suffering from mental and physical diseases like dizziness, diabetes, hysteria etc, forced the serious students of religion to determine his mental soundness. Daniel, an Indian Christian teacher visited him at Qadian and put him seven questions dealing with his mental processes. The Review of Religions, Qadian published a reply to these questions,48 in consultation with Mirza. The paper did not deny his mental and physical deviations but claimed that the Holy Prophet (p.b.o.h) had called them the signs of the Promised Messiah.49 Another Christian scholar Dr. H.D. Griswold of Lahore came to the conclusion that Mirza was honest but self-deceived. 50

At the Cairo Missionary Conference in 1906, a Christian Missionary stated:

An analysis of Mirza’s checkered past and his claims, writings, revelations, prophecies etc. compel us to conclude that he was undoubtedly a conscious deceiver. He realized the Imperialist needs and employed the name of God for their fulfillment. The whole business was meant for self-aggrandisement and to amass wealth and fame at the cost of religion.

Tazkirah, the Qadiani ‘Bible’, carries a lot of rubbish and absurd material unheard of in the history of holy men. The revelations are in Arabic, Urdu, Persian, English, Hebrew, a Hindi and Punjabi. The language is poor, vague and incorrect. In fact, a large part of it is a hotch potch having no specific meanings. Qadianis put these utterances to numerous interpretations to support the prophethood of Mirza. Some revelations are in numerals and figures and others in an unknown language, which the recipient himself admits not to have understood them. This mumbo jumbo reflects the inner feelings, emotional crises and mental retardation of the claimant. Since Mirza had been afflicted with various diseases during his lifetime like hysteria, vertigo, diabetes, migraine, colic, tuberculosis, melancholia, sexual debility, acute and persistent dysentery etc. He developed some abnormalities in him. He was a mentally deranged person yet by all means a wicked and conscious impostor and henchman of alien powers. He was absolutely clear about his political mission. In all of his works the underlying theme is fealty to the British, condemnation of Jehad, desire to see the Muslim World under Imperialist subjugation and a passion to render services for the consolidation of the British Empire in India. He uses an extremely harsh language for his critics and opponents but remains very polite and subservient to his alien masters. There is not a single revelation, prophecy, dream etc. which goes in any way against the political interests of the British or condemns their misdeeds as a colonial power. Every word that he claimed to have received from God is pro-British and anti-Islamic in its orientation. His God is happy over the enslavement of the Muslims and the economic prosperity of the Britishers.

It has become manifestly clear on the basis of solid evidences that Ahmadiyya movement owes its origin to Imperialist and Jewish backings. Jewish influence and their money coupled with the secret ecclesiastical funds of the British Government watered the Ahmadiyya sapling to grow into a big tree. They employed a surrogate to launch this subversive movement to fulfill their Imperialist ends and to create a schism in the body politic of Islam by striking at the unity of Muslim world.

Magnum Opus

Around the year 1872, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad started sending articles in Indian newspapers and journals to introduce himself as a champion of Islam. He afterwards entered into active discussions with the Arya, Brahmo and Deva Samaj leaders on the issue of transmigration of souls, philosophy of Vedas, etc. He was creating the impression of him being a defender of Islam. By 1879, he engaged himself in compiling a book entitled Braheen-e-Ahmadiyya. The first four volumes of the book were published by 1884. On his repeated requests many well-to-do Muslims specially Syed Muhammad Hasan, Dewan State of Patiala,52 Nawab of Bhopal, Molvi Chiragh Ali of Hyderabad Deccan, Nawab Ali Muhammad Khan of Ludhiana and Sardar Ghulam Muhammad, Rais of Wah, donated a good amount of money for the publication of the book. 53

The first volume of the book carries two Persian poems and a lengthy announcement in which it had been claimed that if any one would dare to refute his arguments in favour of Islam he would be committed to pay him Rs.10,000 as a reward. It was a tall and absurd claim as his son Mirza Bashir Ahmad later remarked that he could advance not a single argument in favour of Islam.54

He launched this book from a commercial point of view and to establish his ‘Islamic’ credentials. The price of the book was announced to be Rs.5 but it was doubled afterwards and then raised to Rs.25. He wanted to fix a price at Rs.100 but subsequently dropped the idea. Appeals were made to the Muslims of India to send advance payments. It was promised to bring fifty volumes of the books but he could only publish five volumes, first four untill 1884 and the fifth one after a lapse of 23 years which appeared after his death in 1908. 55 (In the preface of fifth volume he wrote: At first I had intended to write this book in 50 volumes but was contended to write 5… the difference between 5 and 50 is a mere DOT, therefore the promise of 50 is fulfilled after writing this 5th volume") 56

Braheen-e-Ahmadiyya carries a large number of his interesting revelations, visions and inspirations. He used this stuff as a raw material with a view to realizing his nefarious religo-political designs. In fact, he laid claim to prophethood from the start in a concealed manner.57 Neither the time was ripe nor could he invite the wrath of Indian Muslims at the initial stage of the Ahmadiyya drama.

In volume III of the book he eloquently praised the British rule and introduced his family as the most sincere and loyal servants of British Imperialism. He emphatically claimed to be a recipient of divine revelations and declared that Jehad had been forbidden by God against the British Government. He also put forth a proposal that the Anjuman-i-Islam, Lahore, (private body devoted to the cause of Islam) and its branches should acquire fatwas (religious decrees) against Jehad from all prominent ulema of India and get them published in a book under the caption 'A Bunch of Letters From The Ulema of India' for wider distribution in the Punjab especially in the North West of India, in order to rebut Dr.Hunter's charges made in his book, Indian Musalmans and to root out the belief of Jehad from the hearts of warring Muslims.58

The Muslims of India suspected the intention of Mirza and reacted sharply over his writings carrying praise for the British rule in India and his aspiration for its establishment in other parts of the Muslim world. In volume IV of his book he confessed that many persons had strongly objected to and even rebuked him for his advocacy of the British rule in India.59 However since he had been motivated by the injunctions of the Holy Quran and the sayings of the Prophet (p.b.o.h) he could not change his mind, he argued.

 The book received some appreciation from certain quarters because it was wrongly taken as an attempt to defend Islam in its own way by a claimant of Islamic revivalism. However cautious Muslim scholars came out with their apprehensions concerning the religious claims of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad. They believed him a hypocrite and slanderer working on a political mission.

After publication of the book, he attended to his private life. He had enough money to live a lavish life. Some of his close associates objected to it. They deplored that their hard earned and miserly saved money given for the ‘propagation of Islam’ had been spent on purchasing the jewellery of Mirza’s (second) wife.60 Such solitary voices were stifled.

In 1884, at the age of 50, he thought of his second marriage. He had two sons: Mirza Sultan Ahmad and Mirza Fazal Ahmad from his first wife. Although he lamented over his bad health and suffered from many chronic diseases like tuberculosis, diabetes and migraine, and had claimed to lose all interest in the other sex, he announced to have received a revelation of a second marriage with Khadija.61 On 17 November 1884 the marriage was celebrated with Nusrat Jehan, the daughter of Mir Nasar Nawab, a petty clerk in Irrigation Department, Lahore, who opposed Mirza for a long tome when he made tall religious claims. Mirza also yearned for the third marriage (to fulfil his 'God-sent revelation' that he will marry a widow. However that prophecy did not materialise till his death despite repeated reassurances from God. 62) but was so much bogged down in Muhammadi Begum love scandal that he could not pursue the idea further.

In 1885, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad claimed to be a mujaddid and a reformer of the age. The next year he went to Hoshiarpur to go into retreat at some solitary place for 40 days. Having completed this period, he published an announcement of 20 February 1886 that a handsome and pure boy would be bestowed on him. His name would be Emmanuel and Bashir. He would be the manifestation of the First and the Last, a manifestation of the True and the High, as if Allah had descended from Heavens. The son was born but he died early. 63 However his son, Mirza (Bashirduddin) Mahmud Ahmad, borned later, subsequently claimed to be the Promised son, the Musleh Maood in 1944 through an absurd interpretation of Mirza’s vague writings and by dint of his own revelations.

On 1st December 1888, Mirza announced that God had commanded him to accept ba'at (oath of allegiance) and form a Jamat (Organisation). The bayat form meant to induct a new member gave ten conditions for entering into Ahmadiyya Jamaat. Of these, the fourth condition, although general in nature, made it imperative on every Ahmadi to be loyal to the British Government. He formally took bai'at on 23 March, 1889 at Ludhiana.

Mirza Mahmud throws light on the significance of fourth condition of induction into the Jamaat:

More Loyal Than the King

Mirza regarded the British rule in India as a great blessing of God. He exhorted his followers to extend all cooperation to them as in that lay their salvation and pleasure of God. To fire cannons and sway arms were regarded as exclusive privileges of the British Imperialists and waging tongues in useless theological controversies and scratching pen was the duty of Muslims of the world.

He says:

In another book he puts the question: The official organ of Qadianism, the Review of Religions, Qadian, gives the services Mirza rendered for the British colonialism in a vivid manner. ‘The writings of the founder of Jamaat-e-Ahmadiyya’, says the paper ‘have been highly appreciated by great diplomats and Statesmen of the Government.’

Sir Fredrick Cunningham, Commissioner and Superintendent of Peshawar District wrote in 1900 to Mirza:

Similarly, Prof. Toy of American University, Beirut, wrote an article under the caption Islamic Danger in which he appreciated the influence exerted by the Ahmadiyya movement on the thoughts of common Muslims.68

Jubilee Celebrations

Mirza Ghulam Ahmad availed every opportunity to prove his loyalty to the British colonialists. To celebrate the Diamond Jubilee of his godmother, Queen Victoria, he arranged a special meeting on 20 June 1897 at Qadian. The Qadiani elders delivered speeches in 6 languages and explained the blessings of the Raj. Prayers were offered for the long life and prosperity of the Queen and continuation of her ‘glorious’ rule in India. Poor people of the town were entertained; streets, mosques and houses were all lit. Congratulatory telegram was sent to Lord Elgin, the Viceroy of India on 20 June. A beautifully bound copy of the book, Tohfa-e-Qaisarya (A Present to the Queen) was sent to Queen Victoria through the Deputy Commissioner in commemoration of that auspicious occasion. Copies of the book were also sent to the Viceroy and Lt. Governor of the Punjab. 69

In his present to the Queen, he in a humble way, gave a short background note explaining the political services of his family in 1857 and post-Mutiny period till he took up the ‘stupendous’ task of serving the cause of the empire. He then enumerated his services and posed himself as a well wisher, a lickspittle and an extremely loyal servant of the ‘British Empire. He eagerly awaited an acknowledgement from the Queen and when we conferred her recognition on him, he was overjoyed and expressed his utmost thanks for her act of gratitude. 70

The day of Queen Victoria’s Diamond Jubilee brought a wave of indignation for the British colonialists in India. On the evening of the Jubilee Day, two Europeans, Mr.Rand of the Indian civil Service and Lt. Ayerst, on their way home from a reception at Government House, were shot dead by a Hindu Brahmin. It was a political assassination and an extreme way to express resentment against the British rule in India.

Queen Victoria died on 22 January 1901, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad was deeply grieved at the death of his godmother. He sent the following telegram to the British Government:

Spy 'Prophet'

It is nauseating to go through the writings of Mirza, for he panegyrised the British Imperialism and undoubtedly posed himself a sycophant and a suppliant whenever he happened to speak of the British.72 He even goes so far as to take upon himself the role of a British spy by offering his political services to the government to expose those religious leaders of India who believed British India was Dar-alHarb (abode of war) and, therefore, considered Jehad an indispensable necessity. They, in accordance with the Islamic law, believed that only Zuhar prayer could be offered instead of special prayer on Fridays in Dar-alHarb. To expose those ‘hidden enemies of the British' he on 1st January 1896 published a letter suggesting that Friday should be declared a closed day and circulated it to the leading Muslim ulema for their endorsement. He made it clear in the footnote of the letter that those ulema who would not sign the decree would prove themselves anti-Government and enemies of the British. 73

The Spy ‘prophet’ also submitted a petition to the Governor General of India offering his services to expose the ‘ill wishers of God-sent British Government’ and earnestly declared that in the ‘Khutba’ (sermon) of the Friday prayer, the blessings of the British Raj should be narrated by the ulema. It was submitted that a list of ‘anti-British, foolish and rebel ulema of the India prepared by Qadiani (intelligence) sources could be given to the Government, if so desired. It could be kept as a state secret by the wise Government for future action’, Mirza emphasized. He also gave specimen of a Performa to record the name of such anti-British ulema. It carried the columns of name, place, rewards, etc. 74

Besides his spy work, he engaged the ulema in useless theological controversies in a very clever way. He used an abusive and provocative language against them and resorted to their character assassination. After launching a crusade against the Jehadist ulema who had been fighting against the British Imperialists in India, he entered into an open conflict with Hindu and Christian religious leaders to push up the communal frenzy in accordance with the British policy of ‘divide and rule’.

By cleverly engaging the ulema in theological discussions he succeeded in diverting their target of attack from the British Imperialism to Ahmadiyya heresy. He predicted death and humiliation for his opponents and when his prophecies proved false he gave far-fetched and absurd interpretations to those utterances. He always cut a sorry figure. An outstanding feature of his character was shameless insistence on fulfillment of his every prophecy. By standard of judgement it can be safely said that even Jeane Dixon predicts far better than him. She is accurate in most of her statements. Mirza’s oft-repeated prophecies, the mainstay of his prophethood, dwelt at length on his financial gains, receiving money orders, gifts and subscriptions, on the humiliation and death of his enemies, and on his success in the field of litigation.75

One of his interesting prophecies related to his ‘marriage’ with Muhammadi Begum, a beautiful and attractive girl and his near relative. It was prophesied that she would ultimately become his bride. But it could not happen. He predicted death for any person who would dare to marry her. He called her a heavenly bride in his prophecies. Despite all techniques of blackmail, intimidation and persuasion, her father did not succumb to Mirza’s wishes. This scandal afforded an excuse to his Hindu and Christian opponents to hurl attacks on the pious life of our Holy Prophet (p.b.o.h) and a champion of Islam. Muhammadi Begum was married to Mirza Sultan Muhammad during Mirza’s lifetime.76

Subtle Patronage

Promotion of religious differences was part of the Imperialist policy. It divided the Indian society into scores of small warring groups. The British Secret Service encouraged its agents to put forth scurrilous and provocative literature to widen the differences among different religious entities. Religious adventurists used the press liberally to launch their attacks on their opponents and to engage when in futile religious controversies. In 1886, the Government registered the publication 8,963 periodicals in India out of which 1,485 were in Urdu, 1,352 in Bengali, 843 in Hindi, 679 in English and rest them in other languages.77 Most of them were engaged in theological discussions.

Mirza Ghulam Ahmad entered into religious controversies with Christian and Hindu religious leaders in a peculiar way. He threw challenges of prayer duels, put out revelations in their condemnation and used abusive language to provoke them to retaliate against him. His crusade resulted in the appearance of many slanderous works against Islam.78

The Punjab Government closely watched the religious controversies ranging in the Punjab among different groups and sects. Mirza Ghulam Ahmad’s activities in promoting religious antagonism were particularly reported to the higher British officials. In 1893, he entered into a religious controversy with Rev.Henry Martin Clark, a Medical Missionary in-charge of Amritsar District. As a result of it, a debate took place at Amritsar between Mirza and Abdullah Athim, a Muslim convert to Christianity and the former Extra Assistant Commissioner, Sialkot. In the proceedings of the Home Department, Government of the Punjab, the details of a series of meetings have been given which were held in order to ‘discuss religious topics concerning Mohammadans and Christians.’ The speakers on the side of the latter were Mr. Abdullah Athim and Rev. Henry Martin Clark and other side was represented by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian. The contest lasted for a fortnight without any material result in favour of either party. Mirza, however, threatened the speakers of the opposite faith with premature death within fifteen months, as a punishment revealed to him by God in a dream failing which he consented to be disgraced and hanged for having persisted in upholding falsehood.79

The deadline of fifteen months ended on 4 September 1894. Athim did not die. Christian missionaries jeered at Ahmadis and condemned the Qadiani impostor. Mirza shamelessly insisted on the fulfillment of his prophecy stating that Athim had saved himself by turning towards the truth.

The Civil & Military Gazette, Lahore, under the heading - A Dangerous Fanatic wrote:

Like Athim, Mirza entered into a controversy with an Arya Samajist, Pandit Lekh Ram Peshawari, a retired police official. He predicted that Lekh Ram would die by February 1898. He was described as a molten calf. Lekhram was later on mysteriously murdered at Lahore on 6 March 1897. It generated a good deal of communal tension in the Punjab. Mirza took advantage of the situation to emphasize his claim.

Lala Lajpat Rai, an Arya Samaj leader states:

Managed Show

Dr. Henry Martin Clark, the patron of Athim charged Mirza Ghulam Ahmad under section 307 on Ist August 1897 in the Court of District Magistrate, Amritsar. He stated that Mirza had sent Abdul Hamid to murder him. The case was later transferred to the Court of District Magistrate, Gurdaspur as it fell under his jurisdiction. During the proceedings, the Police prevailed upon Abdul Hamid to change his earlier statement in favour of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad. The basis of the case was shaken. No further legal action could be taken against Mirza. It was a managed show. The British watched the proceedings with interest. Col. Douglas, District Magistrate Gurdaspur, subsequently told A.R. Dard that the case was watched by the Punjab Government.82

Dr. Clark’s case helped to dispel the commonly held belief that Mirza had employed agents to murder his opponents to fulfil his prophecies. He continued to throw challenges of prayer duels to his enemies and prophecised their humiliation and death till he was ordered by the Punjab Government on 24 February 1899 to refrain from publishing any prediction involving the disgrace of any person and representing him as the object of Divine wrath.83 The order was meant to check the heat generated by the religious frenzy and to appease his opponents who were the followers of Muhammad Hussain Batalvi. There was no change in the British policy. It was a stop gap measure. Mirza, the loyal agent of the British Empire, faithfully obeyed the order. He did not utter a word quite for sometime. Had he been sent by God and had He revealed His will to him, he would not have kept mum. This proves that the Qadiani danced to the tunes of his British masters. He was the mouthpiece of Imperialism and had no divine mission except to fulfil the political designs of the British colonialists.


At the close of 19th century, the Christian missionaries and Arya Samjists opened a floodgate of vile attacks on Islam. They found an excuse in scurrilous attacks, which Mirza made on their leaders through his writings and prophecies. The secret hand of British bureaucracy played a crucial role to aggravate the situation.

Dr. Ahmad Shah, an apostate lived in London. The British planted him as Medical Officer in Ladakh before he settled in Britain. He wrote a book attacking the Pious wives of the Holy Prophet (p.b.o.h). The British intelligence managed to get this book published at RP Mission Press, Gujranwala, Punjab. One thousand copies of the book entitled Umhat-ul-Mominin were distributed freely to injure the susceptibilities of the Muslims and create hatred among Christian and Muslim communities of India.

The Anjuman-I-Himayat-I-Islam, Lahore, sent a memorandum to the government on 26 April 1898 demanding that the book should be confiscated.84 Mirza also sent a memorandum on 4 May 1898 requesting the government that the book should not be proscribed. He argued that a reply to the book should instead be prepared. He criticized the Anjuman’s move and asked the government to ignore the said memorial.85

Religious frenzy continued to grow in India. The religious leaders ignored all norms of decency to launch abusive attacks on the persons of their rivals and their beliefs. In that charged atmosphere, Mirza sent another memorial to Lord Elgin, the Viceroy of India, in October 1898. He proposed a code of ethics for the controvertialists, to curtail the use of abusive language in religious controversies, by bringing them under the purview of law.86 He apprehended that too much heat generated by religious controversies would pose a danger to the benign rule of the British Government and might lead to political unrest. The vile and abusive writings could provoke Muslim fanatics to take up arms against the British rule, like that of 1857 upheaval. The memorial was meant to check political upsurge and to suggest the Imperialist masters to review their policy of neutrality in religious matters in the light of emerging political realities. The proposal was given out of sheer loyalty and love for the British masters but the British Government rejected Mirza’s proposal and did not take any action on it.87

AR Dard throws light on the political significance of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad’s move:

Mirza Ghulam Ahmad gave an interesting explanation of his vile and filthy language he consistently used against Christian clergy and Christianity. He justified his anti-Christian stance and attacks on the person of Jesus Christ by saying that his indecent writings served to pacify hotheaded Muslims. They felt satisfied after reading such harsh and scurrilous writings and changed their vindictive mood which otherwise would have been dangerous for the peace of the country. Secondly, he maintained that anti-Christian writings would have a political value in Muslim countries. After reading such works, the Muslims appreciate the religious policy of the British Government and had a feeling of love for them.89 They also thought that the British were favourably inclined towards Muslims and their rule posed no danger to Islam. To this end in view, bulk of Qadiani literature was sent to Muslim countries for the sake of Imperialist propaganda.

Mirza dared not suggest that Christian missions had their roots in imperial expansion, that so long as Imperialism endured, its missionary adjuncts must remain, and that Antichrist could not die while Imperialism lived. He blessed Imperialism and cursed its child. He swallowed the camel and strained at the gnat.90

In response to Mirza Ghulam Ahmad’s abusive writings and disgraceful prophetic utterances, a class of Muslim ulema planned to pay him in the same coin.91 That brought him further notoriety, yet their counter offensive forced him to seek the protection of law against the Molvis who stood in his way. He, in fact, wanted to inveigle government into a partisan alliance as his prophethood lacked stamina to fight its way through opposition and could not take its chance unaided. He had not the faith that could spring from a righteous cause. He was afraid of the struggle for existence that thinned out misfits. He knew that his prophethood could not weather the storm.  That is why he knelt before the British and supplicated for support. He wanted England to look upon his prophethood as her adoptive and spoon-fed child.92


  1. Galina Nikitina, The State of Israel, Moscow, 1973 P. 15
  2. Ibid
  3. William B.Ziff, The Rape of Palestine, London, 1948 P.14
  4. Solomon Grazel, A History of the Jews, the Jewish Publication Society of America, Philadelphia, 1969, P. 591
  5. J.C. Stevens, Palestine in Prophecy, The Voice of Prophecy, California, USA 1944, P. 6
  6. W.B. Ziff, op. cit. P. 33
  7. J.C. Steven op. cit, P.71
  8. W.B. Ziff op, cit, P. 34
  9. R.F. Gould History of Freemasonry, London
  10. George Antonius, The Arab Awakening, London, 1961 P. 79
  11. Jewish Encyclopedia Vol I KTV Publishing House USA P. 601
  12. Daniel Grotto Kurska, Notes on inside The Occult: the True Story of H.P. Blavatsky, Philadelphia, USA 1975 P.5
  13. Elie Kedourie, Afghani and Abdul New York, USA, 1966 P. 21
  14. . The Moslim World, Vol II No2 April 1912 P. 76
  15. . Letter from Sir George Campbell to Lord Mayo of 12 October 1871 and Appendix 2 Memo by AR Gile of 30 November 1871 Bundle Wahabis No. 28 of Mayo Paper, Cambridge University Library, London quoted in P. Hardy - the Muslim of British India, Camb, 1972
  16. . No. 317 of Letter Despatched October -December 1871, No. 41 of Mayo Papers, Also Bundle Wahabis II No 29 of Mayo Paper op. cit.
  17. F.H. Skrine, life of Sir William Wilson Hunter, London 1901, P.199
  18. W.W. Hunter, The Indian Musalmans, The Comrade Publishers Calcutta, 1945
  19. J.N. Farquhar, Modren Religious Movements in India, P. 107
  20. Brain Gardner, The East India Company, London, 1971, P.171
  21. Ibid 251
  22. See Klaus Knorr, British Colonial Colonial Theories, (1570-1850) London 1965 P. 388
  23. John Baillie God's Avenger; or England's Present Duty in India with a Galance at the Future, London 1857; The Religions of India, Church of England Quarterly Review, XLIV, 1858, John Jessop, Indian Rebellion, The Pulpit LXII 1858
  24. H.J.S. Cotton New India, London , 1886-Appendix: Report on the census of British India, 17 February, 1881 Vol. 1 P.33
  25. Molvi Chiragh Ali, A Critical Exposition of Popular Jehad, Calcutta, 1885, PP.159-160
  26. Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Qadiani, Kitab-ul-Barayah, Qadian 1898, P. 143
  27. See Abdul Rahim Dard Qadiani, Life of Ahmad, Lahore 1948, P.13
  28. Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, Kashful Ghata, Ziaul Islam Press Qadian, 1898, P.5
  29. Dard, op cit, P. 14
  30. Ibid P. 15
  31. Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, Shahadat-ul-Quran Runjab Press Sialkot, 1893, P. 9 (supplement) also Dard, op, cit. P. 14
  32. Sir Zafarullah, Essence of Islam Vol.1 London 1979 P. VIII
  33. For a brief life sketch of Mirza Ghulam Murtaza See Qazi Fazal Ahmad, Kalima-i-Fazal Rabani, Lhore, 1893
  34. Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Kashuf-Ghata, Qadian, 1898 P.5
  35. Muhammad Yakub Khan Quest After God(Glimpses of the Life of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad ) Anjuman Ahmadiyya Lahore, 1949, P. 17
  36. See Tarikh-i-Ahmadiyya Vol-1 compiled by Dost Muhammad Shahid Rabwah.
  37. Mirza Bashir Ahmad, Seerat-ul-Mahdi Vol 1 Qadian, P. 135
  38. See Frederick Henry Copper, The Crises in the Punjab from the 10 of May untill the Fall of Delhi, London, 1858
  39. For a detailed account see; i) The Indian Crisis, A Special General Meeting of the Church Missionary Society at Exeter Hall, on Thursday, Jannuary 12th 1858, London, 1858 ii) Recent Intelligence, Special Meeting on Indian Crisis Chruch Missionary Record, New Series III, 1858
  40. The History of Church Missionary Society, London, 1899 Vol-II P.250
  41. Abu Mudassara, Qadian Say Israel Tak, Lahore , 1979, P. 24
  42. Files of Church of England Magazine Church of England Quartery Review Church Missionary Intelligence and Church Missionary Record Corroborate the beed of Such an Imperialist lackey.
  43. Mirza Mahmud Ahmad Seerat-e-Masih-e-Maood, Rabwah, P. 15
  44. Mirza Mahmud Ahmad 's Address, Alfazal Qadian,24 April,1934
  45. Dr. Busharat Ahmad, Mujadid-i-Azam, Lahore 1939, P.42
  46. Address of Abdul Mannan Omer at the Annual Gathering of December 1977, Ahmadiyya Anjuman Lahore 1981, P. 12
  47. In 1879 his close friend Maulana Muhammad Hussain Batalvi wrote a book against Jehad and got a reward from the British (Supplement Ishat-u-Sunnah, Lahore Vol VIII No. 9 PP261-262)
  48. Review of Religions, Qadian, April 1906
  49. H.A. Walter The Ahmadiyya Movement Associated Press Calcutta, 1918 P. 20
  50. Dr Girswold, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, the Mehdi and Messiah of Qadian, Ludhaina, 1902.
  51. The Mohammaden World Today, Paper presented at First Missionary Conference, Cairo 4-9 April 1906 London, 1906
  52. Khalifa Syed Muhammad Hassan, Dawan of Patiala State was a confidant of the British. He also enjoyed confldence of the Council of Regency which administered the affair of this loyal State of Punjab. He extended moral and great financial support to the Mirza in launching his book. In 1884, the Mirza went to Pataila and was given a warm welcome. Khalifa invited him in 1886 to hold discussion with him on some important matter and was introduced to 3 member Council of Regency headed by Sardar Dewa Singh, Mirza paid a third visit to the state in October 1891 after his claim of Messahiship. Some suspect that the Khalifa served as a link between the British and the Mirza in securing funds for his sinister plans (See Misbahuddin, Khatamul Nabieen, Rawalpindi, 1973)
  53. Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, Brahin-e-Ahmadiyya, Safeer-e-Hind Press, Amritsar, Punjab 1880
  54. Mirza Bashir Ahmad Seerat-ul-Mahdi, Vol 1 P.93
  55. Ibid
  56. Braheen Ahmadiyya part 5, Roohani Khazian vol.21 p.9
  57. At the time of compilling the Brahin-i-Ahmadiyya Mirza Ghulam Ahmad concealed his real motive i.e. proclamation of prophethood. He shrewdly put it off to some future date depending on the exigencies of time in a letter dated 8 August 1899, which appeared in Al Haram' Qadian, dated 17 August 1899, he says that he received a revelation 'A nabi came in the world but the world did not accept him' when he was compiling the Brahin but in order to avoid strong reaction of the Muslims to his claim of prophethood, he recorded the other Qirat of his revelation: 'A Nazir came in the world' This amply shows his real intention of what he planned for the future and is a glaring example of his shrewed pretension. (Also See Miza Ghulam Ahmad's book of Wahi dreams etc. Tazkira, P.104)
  58. Brahin. Vol.III P.A
  59. Brahin, Vol IV P.A
  60. Farooq Qadian, 7 September 1938 Khawaja Kamaluddin a leading member of the coterie was one of them (Syed Sarwar Shah, Kashaf-e-Ikhtalaf, P. 15). Dr Abdul Hakim, one time a staunch follower of the Mirza vividly exposed the Mirza's technique to extort money in the name of Islam and to use it for personal ends. (Alzikar-ul-Hakim No.1-6 Mubarak Brothers, Pataila State Punjab 1906-1907)
  61. Tazkira: 2nd Edition, Rabwah 1969 P. 37
  62. Tiryaq-ul-Quloob, Roohani Khazain vol.15 p.201
  63. Collection of Advertisements vol.1 pp.100-102 and pp.113-115; pp.116-117, pp.125-126. Mirza repeatedly advertised about the impending birth of this son who would be menifestation of God on earth, as can e seen by the number of advertisements given. On 7th August 1887, he announced the birth of 'that boy': "O Readers! I give you the gladtidings of the birth of that boy for whom I had prophesied earlier in my advertisement of 8th April on 16th Zul Qaada 1304 H/7th August 1887 after 12 midnight at 1.30 am that blessed boy is born" (Collection of Advertisement vol.1 p.141) He was named Basheer Ahmad, Emmanuel etc. He died at the age of sixteen months. (ibid p.163)
  64. Mirza Mahmud Ahmad A Present to His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales from the Ahmadiyya Community Nashr-e-Ishaat (Publicity Department ) Sadar Anjuman -i-Ahmadiyya, Qadian, Rajhans Press Delhi January 1922 P. 5
  65. Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Taryaq-ul-Qalub Qadian 1899, P.15
  66. Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, Sitara Qaisarya, Qadian, 1899 P. 3 "We Should not have felt called upon to dwell on the Anglophilous proclivities of Ghulam Ahmad had he spoken as a private individual as so many Anglo Muslim allegiance enthusiasts did during the British rule in India. But he claimed divine authority for every syllable that escaped his lips. (Phoenix, His Holiness, P.63)
  67. Review of Religions, Qadian, Vol,VI, 1907
  68. Review of Religions Vol, V, No. V May 1906 , P.190
  69. Mir Qasim Ali Tabligh-e-Risalat Vol. VI P.130
  70. Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Sitara-e-Qaisarya 1899, P. 4. How anxious he was to receive appreciation of his work from Her Gracious Majesty the Queen Empress can be noted in his revealtion: On 4 October 1899 it was revealed to him 'Thanks From Queen Victoria' (Tazkira P. 341). In a vision he saw the Queen had come to his house in Qadian (Tazkira P. 327)
  71. Government of India Home Department to the Right Hon, Lord George Francis Hamilton H.M. Secretary for India, No. 24 of 1901 , 7 March 1901 Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Rais-e-Qadian Batalas telegram dated 24 January 1901 as one of the enclosures India Office Liberary London.
  72. Mirza Ghulam Ahmad has referred to the revelant pages of 24 of his works (1882-1894) in which he praised British Imperialism (Memorial to Sir William Macworth Young Lt. Governor of Punjab 24 February 1898 ) In the subsequent decade he beat his past record in rendering political service, inclucating the spirit of loyalty for his masters and condemnation of the world of Islam .
  73. Mir Qasim Ali Qadian, Tabligh -e-Risalat (A collection of the Mirza's posters handbills etc) Vol V. Qadian, 1922 P. 6 See also his petition to the VicerViceroy of India , 1st January, 1896
  74. Tabligh-i-Risalat Vol, V P. 11
  75. See Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, Haqiqat-ul-Wahi Qadian, 1907
  76. Mirza Ghulam made various prophecies about his so-called divine marriage with Muhammadi Begum. When her father did not agree and got her married to another man, he announced that her husband will die within 21/2 years and she will come into his wedlock. He said: "In my prophecy there are not one but six assertions; i) I will be alive till the time of my marriage with her; ii)Till the time of this marriage her father will be definitely alive; iii) After the marriage, the death of her father within 3 years; iv) the death of her husband within two and a half years; v) till I marry her, that girl must remain alive; and finally vi) after becoming a widow, despite all opposition, she will into my matrimony." (Roohani Khazain vol.5 p.325) Mohammadi Begum and her husband lived for the  40 years happily married together whereas Mirza died in 1908. Divine marriage never materialised.
  77. Report of the Misionary Conference London held at New Yourk 1888, P. 319
  78. See Maulana Mazhar All Azhar, Sitarath Parkash Aur Mirza Ghulam Ahmad , Lahore
  79. Government of the Punjab Home Department Proceedings, January to July 1894 from J. Sime, Director Public Instructions Punjab ro the Chief Secretary to the Government of Punjab No. 457 dated 22 February 1894, India Office Library London.
  80. The Civil & Military Gazzette, 24 October 1894
  81. Lajpat Rai, Autoboigraphical Writings - edited by Vijaya Chandra Joshi, Delhi, 1965, P.75
  82. A.R Dard , op cit
  83. Roohani Khazain vol.15 pp.430-450.
  84. Government of the Punjab Home Department proceeding-No 13-26 file No.135-June 1898, India Office Library, London.
  85. Tabligh-i-Risalat, Vol VII P.27 Home Department Proceeding, June 1898 IOL London
  86. Governmnet of the Punjab Home Department proceeding No. 174-182 File 135 October 1898 Memorial of Ghulam Ahmad Mirza of Qadian in connection with religious controversy IOL London Government of the Punjab Home Department proceedings, October 1898 Papers related to Memorials submitted by Anjuman -e-Hamayat-e-Islam, Lahore and Monghry against the publication of book entitled Umahat-ul-Mominin an article written by Maulvi Abdus Said Mohammad Hussain, connected there with a Memorial submitted by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian making certain suggestions as to the best way of regulating religious controversies so as to prevent it from becoming offensible, IOL London.
  87. The Government of India, Home Department states that the Governer General in -Council is not prepared to take any action on the memorial addressed to the Viceroy by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian, relating to the publication of the book entitled Umhat-ul-Mominin (No. 2602 dated 31st December, 1898) To the Commissioner Lahore Division request that Mirza Ghulam Ahmad may be informed as above, Government of Punjab Home Department Proceedings, File No.35 October 1898 IOL London.
  88. A.R. Dard, The Life of Ahmad Lahore 1948 P.433
  89. Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, Tarryaq ul Qalub, Qadian 1899, P. 317
  90. Phoenix, His Holiness, P. 68
  91. Government of the Punjab Home Department Proceedings, File No.29 May 1898 - Complaint of the followers of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad qadinai against Editor of the Jaffer Zatalli IOL London.
  92. Phoenix His Holiness, P.121