British Imperialism brought many countries of Africa and Asia under its way in the 19th century. One significant aspect of the growth of colonization was its sinister collaboration with militant Jewish nationalism. Jews had been drifting into England since the days of Cromwell, who wanted to bring back those Jews who had been expelled from England in 1290 by Edward I with a view to obtaining economic advantage for England.1 During the French campaign in Palestine in 1788, Napoleon recruited Jews from Asian and African countries into his army. He advanced the idea of setting up a Jewish Kingdom in Jerusalem under France’s aegis mainly for strategic consideration.2
By 1839, Jewish restoration in the Holy Land was a burning topic. Popular interest had become so intense that the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, after sending a special commission to the Holy Land to report on conditions there, addressed a Memorandum to the Protestant Monarchs of Europe on the subject of Restoration of the Jewish People to the Land of Palestine. From this date onwards a pro-Jewish Palestinian debate ran parallel in the London Times with the agitation over the Eastern question.3
Liberal Englishmen continued to raise their voices in favour of Jews. A bill removing discrimination against them was passed in the House of Commons in certain occasions (1833,1834,1836) which failed in the House of Lords. Nevertheless, an act was passed permitting them to hold the local office of Sheriff. David Solomons was elected Sheriff of London in 1855, and two years later Moses Montefoire was elected to the same office, whereupon Queen Victoria knighted him. In 1858, a bill was passed which permitted Jews to enter the British Parliament.4
The Jewish idea was propagated by varied agencies based in America and other parts of Europe. Among them were the Furturist, Anglo-Israelites and Freemasons. They worked under different covers for the Jewish cause and influenced the public opinion in a discreet manner. Futurists supported the return of scattered Jews to Palestine on the basis of certain Biblical prophecies. Protestant theology, in particular, rested on the belief that the world of mankind was evolving towards a millennium in which holiness was to be triumphant everywhere, and that a primary pre-requisite to this happy eventuality was the ‘return of God’s Chosen People, the Jews to the Holy Land.’ That Christ would return, sit on David’s literal throne in old Jerusalem and rule over his peculiar people who would accept him as their Messiah. The magnificent Temple of Ezekiel’s vision would be built on the ancient temple now occupied by the Mosque of Omer (Al Aqsa Mosque) and the ceremonies of ancient Judaism would be resumed.
Supporting their position with direct quotations from Biblical prophecy, a large group of earnest men, divines, statesmen and writers set themselves to be the instruments to achieve the desired Jewish end.5
Connected with the destiny of the Jews is the theory of so called Lost Ten Tribes of Israel. It was said to be a sharp reaction to the ideas of a few western liberals and ‘Assimilationists’ who denied the existence of a Jewish nation altogether. However, in the wake of the irresistible liberal sweep, which was supposed to de-Judaize the Jews, Anglo-Israelism was responsible to give a big momentum to Judaizing process.6
Most prominent among those who claimed that the ‘lost’ Tribes were the British or Anglo-Isrealites of England and Canada were the members of Anglo American Federation. It was argued that the British Commonwealth of Nations were descended from the ten tribes of Israel, that Americans were the seed of Manasseh, while Englishmen were the seed of Ephraim, that the United States of America and Canada were peopled with the Covenant people; that the Anglo Saxon people were the descendants of the northern tribes of Israel and were in possession of all the blessings promised to Israel in the latter days; that the David’s throne was promised in perpetuity by God and that a world state would emerge under the House of David in the days to come.7
Every attitude of the aggressive young Imperialism, which the Anglo-Saxon was erecting, became tinctured with Hebrew philosophy. So completely was it absorbed that a large section of the English people began to look upon themselves as being actually descended from Israelites. This conviction on the part of a large part of the British public became so great that it resulted in the forming of British Israel World Federation, at one time claiming over five million members, and including such eminent personages as Queen Victoria and King Edward VII.8
Freemasonry played a crucial role in the furtherance of Jewish cause in the garb of secrecy. The Jewish penetration into the European secret societies ran parallel to the growth of Freemasonry. The building of the Solomon Temple symbolized the Jewish return to Palestine. A large number of statesmen, politicians, civil and military officials, diplomats and traders gathered in Masonic lodges of different secret rites and denominations to hatch pro-Jewish plots. Masonic temples were erected in almost all important cities of the US, Britain, France and Italy. In India, Freemasonry took roots in Bengal and spread rapidly in its other parts long before the War of Independence of 1857.9
Freemasons and Jews directed most of their plots against the solidarity of the Turkish Empire. Masons of higher degrees found native agents to launch subversive activities under the cover of secret societies. Disraeli, a Jew by birth, who became the Prime Minister of Britain in 1877. Made a reference to the working of the secret societies and their clandestine operations in some parts of the world. These societies functioned in and outside the Ottoman Empire and were mostly based in Geneva, Paris, London, Brussels, and after the British occupation of Egypt in 1882, in Cairo. They encouraged militant nationalism and propagated ideas of secession of Arab lands from the Turkish ‘domination.’
George Antonius says that the first organized attempt to introduce nationalist ideas was made by five young men who had been educated at the Syrian Protestant College in Beirut. They were all Christians. Around 1875, a secret society was formed and a movement was started n collaboration with the Freemasonry which had been making inroads in Syrian society on the typical European pattern.10
Jewish-backed agencies and secret societies channeled their efforts for the revival of Judaism and restoration of scattered Jews to Palestine. They attacked the Christian dogmas in the wildest manner. Christian missionaries were severely condemned and their activities ridiculed. The philosophical ideas of Jewish mysticism and theories forwarded by Jewish scholars were given much publicity. Islam posed a direct challenge to Jewish militancy. A tirade against Islam was immediately launched to loosen its hold and check its spread and growth.
Agents of Jewish agencies hired natives to corrupt fundamental religious beliefs and to start movements in the name of revivalism. Muslims of the world looked to some of these ‘revivalist’ movements as rays of hope, without realizing the harm they could do through their secret workings. They welcomed the new ideas of rationalism, nationalism and modernism without examining their implications for the world of Islam.
Jewish nationalism spread widely in 1850s. At the close of 19th century and with the publication of Theoder Herzls’s book, The Jewish State and the subsequent Basle Congress of 1897, Zionism became international movement of the Jews aimed to capture Palestine as their homeland.
We find some mysterious links between Zionism and certain movements that arose in Asia and the Middle East in the name of religious revivalism. The Ahmadiyya of India and Bahaism of Iran, Freemasonry and Theosophist movements had links with secret Jewish agencies. Masonic and Theosophist institutions were established in the USA, Britain and its colonies, mainly by the Jewish agents. Colonel Alcott, a freemason of questionable past, was imprisoned in America for circulating immoral literature, came to India in 1879 with Madam Blavatsky, the widow of a Russian General, behind whom there also lay an eventful and dubious past. They preached atheistic ideas of Buddhism and established a Center of Theosophy in Madras. In their periodical, the ‘Theosophist’, they praised Buddhism and Hinduism and forcefully condemned Christianity and Christian missionaries. They left for Europe in 1884 after establishing a strong movement in India. At some point while travelling through Switzerland, Germany and Italy, Blavatsky offered her services to the Russian Secret Service, but they did not accept it.12 She was a freemason of 32 degree and was held in high esteem in Masonic circles. Her book Isis Unveiled is considered an excellent Masonic work. Her close associate, Annie Besant, famous for Home Rule movement India, was also an eminent freemason.
Pan Islamic movement of the 19th century owes much to Syed Jamaluddin Afghani. The Persian Revolution (1905), Young Turks Movement of Turkey (1908) and some Egyptian national movements were influenced and inspired by him and his followers. Afghani was a freemason. He used this Jewish institution for propagation of his political beliefs. Mufti Abdu was also a freemason and a confidant of Lord Crommer of Egypt. Afghani was expelled from the Masonic Lodge, Star of East for his political activities and showing disregard to its secret functioning.13
Babism and Bahaism of Iran are strongly pro-Jewish movements. Abdul Baha, in a lecture at a meeting of the Society of Friends, London on 12 January 1913 traced the origin of Bahaism to llluminate, a torchbearer of masonry, founded in Germany in the 18th century. Bahaism worked openly against Islam. Its followers established close relations with Zionists. Bahaullah predicted the return of Jews to Israel in his utterances and revelations. The movement has a powerful base in Israel. After the Iranian Revolution (1979), Bahais have been shifting their centers from Iran to Pakistan.
Bahaism sprang from Shia Iran and Qadianism or Ahmadiyya movement from Sunni India. The origin, growth and religious and political ideas of Qadianism clearly show that its birth was the result of an Imperialist-Zionist conspiracy. Its founder condemns Christianity, declares Jehad abrogated for all time to come, distorts Islamic beliefs and above all declares 900 million Muslims of the world as Kafirs (non believers) and thus outside the pale of Islam. He claims to be a Mujaddid (reformer), Promised Messiah, Mahdi, Nabi and Rasul (prophet) and even Lord Krishna. He preached extreme loyalty for the British Imperialism and incorporated it as an article of faith in his religious creed.
Baulked on the frontier, the British attempted to destroy the organization of mujahidin in India, believing that it was the transmission of men and supplies via the underground that posed the threat on the Frontier. In a series of trials at Ambala and Patna in 1864 and 1865 respectively, a dozen of most active mujahidin were condemned to various terms of transportation to the Andaman Islands on the charges of conspiring to wage war against the Queen. There was a further wave of arrests in 1868, 1870, and 1871 and trials took place at Rajmahal, Malda, and Patna respectively at which further sentences of transportaion to the Andaman Islands were passed.14 After a series of ruthless persecutions and intense police investigations, the supply organization of the freedom fighters was destroyed.
The British turned fiercely on Muslims as their real enemies and used all harsh methods to put an end to the Jehad movement, which "seditious Wahabis" had launched in India.16 On 30 May, 1871 Lord May, who had been an Irish /Secretary in Disraeli’s Ministry, asked a civilian, W.W. Hunter, to write a report on the burning question of the day: Whether the Indian Muslims were compelled by their faith to rebel against the British rule.17 Hunter was given full access to secret official papers for compilation of his report.
Hunter published his report in 1871 under the title The Indian Musalamans: Are they bound in conscience to rebel against the Queen? He discussed the teachings of Islam specially the concept of Jehad, advent of Mahdi and Messiah, problems relating to Jehad movement, the Wahabi concepts and then concluded:
Among Muslims many sects and sub-sects sprang. There were Naturists, Ahli Hadith, Ahle Quran (Chakralwis), pacifist Sufis, besides two larger Shia and Sunni groups. The whole Indian society was divided into a large number of hostile groups all of whom were bitterly at war with each other. It helped the Imperialists to maintain their hold on Indian sub-continent.
The Hindu miliitant organization Arya Samaj was founded in 1875 by Mul Shanker, known by his Brahamnical name Swami Dayanand. He was a fanatic Hindu and wandering teacher of militant Hinduism in North India. He condemned idol worship, child marriage, untouchability and some of the practices of orthodox Hinduism in the name of modern enlightenment and preached what he considered to be the pure teachings of the Vedas.19 Arya Samajiksts considered Islam as the chief obstacle in the establishment of a Vedic society in India. Swami died in 1883. He was the author of the notorious book 'Satyarath Parakash'.
Brahmo Samaj was founded by Raja Ram Mohan Roy (1772-1833) with a view to bringing back the prestine beauty of the Vedic religion. He was very much influenced by Christianity. He was on a ‘political’ mission to England where he died in 1833. The movement received a new impetus when Keshib Chander Sen (1838-84), a Bengali Hindu, eloquently praised Jesus Christ as a redeemer and attracted the attention of Christian missionaries. In 1870, he visited England and received a most extraordinary welcome. Many pulpits were thrown open to him. Sen claimed himself an incarnation of Jesus Christ and established his samaj as a reformed Church of Hinduism. Men like Jagdish Chandra Bose and Rabinder Nath Tagore were Brahmo Samajists.
Pandit S.N. Agnihotri founded the Deva Samaj for revival of Hinduism. The Rama Krishna Mission, the Prathna Samaj and the (Bal Ganga Dhar) Tilak Mission were meant to establish the Hindu supremacy in all fields of life. They wanted to establish a Hindu society by eliminating non-Hindus, especially Muslims from India. Tilak revived the Shevaji cult and organized festivals in honour of the Marhatta leader, Shivaji, in southern India.
Christian missionaries had wielded powerful influence during the rule of East India Company. By the Company Charter of 1813, the work of Christian missionaries was encouraged. A Bishop was appointed with his seat at Calcutta, with three arch deacons. The ecclesiastical establishment was to be paid by the Company. There was every encouragement from England for the proselytising activity in India. A Chairman of the Court of Directors of East India Company said in the House of Commons:
One important factor of the War of Independence of 1857 was the aggressive missionary campaign launched by a few fanatic Christians. After the War, the campaign took a different shape. More emphasis was placed on hiring native agents for sending them in those areas where the missions had since been closed. The Church Missionary Society, London, fielded missionaries into India and sought the Government help to carry out its program.23 There were 21 different Christian Churches operating in the length and breadth of India. Roman Catholics constituted the largest segment of Christian population, over half a million in 1881, followed by Protestants (0.12 million), Baptists (81,000), and followers of Church of England (49,000). Smaller groups viz. Americans, Armenians, Congregationalists, Calvinists, Dissenters, Episcopalians, Independents, Luwtherns, Methodists, Syrian Greeks and Wesleyan Churches preached the Gospels to Indians. The total Christian population in India, including British born and other Europeans was about 2 million at the close of 19th century.24
Christian missionaries met strong resistance from Muslim ulema. Maulana Rehmatullah of Kirana, Dr. Wazir Khan of Agra, Maulana Abdul Hadi of a Lukhnow, Maulana Ale-Hassan and Maulana Muhammad Ali Bichravi gave befitting replies to the Christian apologists in their numerous writings and addresses. It was mostly a defensive war against the aggressive onslaught of missionaries.
In recognition of his 'valuable’ services, Ranjit Singh restored five villages of Qadian to him in 1834. Next year Rangjit Singh died. After his death the central authority grew weak and the British influence increased. Mirza Ghulam Murtaza sided with the British and became their trusted henchman in the Sikh darbar. The Sikh came to know of it. They made an attempt to kill him and his brother Ghulam Mohyuddin but were saved by their younger brother Mirza Ghulam Haider.
Sir Lepel Griffin’s book, The Punjab Chiefs 26 compiled to record the sevices of the loyal families of the Punjab during the "mutiny" of 1857, gives the following account of Ghulam Murtaza’s services:
In June 1849, two months after the annexation of the Punjab by the British, Mirza Ghulam Murtaza wrote a letter to J.M. Wilson, Financial Commissioner of the Punjab, requesting him some favour in lieu of the services rendered by him and his family during the annexation of the Punjab. Wilson replied on 11 June 1849:
Following is the text of the commendatory letter written by Robert Cust, Commissioner of Lahore, to Mirza Ghulam Murtaza on 20 September 1858:
In 1876, Mirza Ghulam Murtaza died.33 On his death, Mirza Ghulam Qadir, his elder son wrote a letter to Robert Egerton, Financial Commissioner of the Punjab, intimating his father’s death and offering services of his family for the British Imperialism. He asked some favour on the basis of his services, Egerton’s reply of 29 June, 1876 to Ghulam Qadir is quoted from Mirza Ghuam Ahmad’s book Kashful Ghata:
From the early life, his father, who had been yearning passionately to regain his lost estate by serving British, engaged him in his own line of work, which consisted mainly in looking after the agricultural interests of the family. Mirza Ghulam Ahmad knocked about the courts in the vain pursuit of regaining the lost estate of Qadian.36 He failed badly and was regarded by his father a good-for-nothing. At last in 1864 his father secured him the petty job of an Ahalmad (clerk) in Sialkot Courts which he accepted. During his stay in Sialkot he appeared in a law examination but badly failed in it. 37
He stayed for 4 years (1864-68) in Sialkot. There he came in close contact with Christian missionaries, especially Scotch clerics, with whom he exchanged views on religious and political subjects. Christian missionaries had swarmed the Punjab after the War of 1857 as that region enjoyed an important place in the British colonial policy. 38
In post-Mutiny period, Christian missionaries had been actively studying the main religious, social, economic, and political causes of the ‘Mutiny’ and were analysing the emerging trends in Indian politics in order to play a decisive role in the colonial game.39 During the years 1858 to 1870 various studies were conducted and missionary conferences were organized to discuss these questions. One such conference was held in December 1862 in the Punjab. It was attended by 35 Christian societies and denominations as well as high civil and military officers and great number of influential men, although there was a good deal of discussion in official circles whether such a conference should be convened.40
In 1869, a private commission consisting of missionary heads visited India to ascertain the causes of the ‘Mutiny’ and suggest ways for the consolidation of the Empire. The commission visited may places, conducted meetings with senior British officials occupying high administrative and military posts and held discussions with officials of Secret Service to have first hand knowledge of religo-political problems that posed a potent threat to the British rule in India. As a result of it, a conference was held at London in 1870. Besides the representatives of the commission, it was attended by prominent missionary heads. The commission and the missionaries submitted their separate reports. Subsequently both these reports were published for private use as a secret and confidential document under the title: The Arrival of the British Empire in India.41 An extract from the report is quoted below which gives the need of a prophet,42 who could serve the nefarious political designs of British Imperialism.
Perkins ordered that the Courts should be closed as a mark of respect, the day Mirza left for Qadian.46
In 1868, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad’s mother Chirgh Bibi alias Ghaseeti died. He had to depend exclusively on his father to get money to make both ends meet. He undertook journey to Dalhousie and other places to attend courts. Those were very difficult days for him. He calmly faced all hardships and never lost sight of his sinister plan. The death of Mirza Ghulam Murtaza in 1876 resulted in still greater hardships for his sons, Mirza Ghulam Qadir and Mirza Ghulam Ahmad. During his lifetime Ghulam Murtaza had usurped the share of property of Qadian which belonged to his collateral relatives. After his death, Ghulam Qadir retained the property. Mirza Ghulam Ahmad was his accomplice. An year after Ghulam Murtaza’s death (1877), Mirza Ghaus, the son of Mirza Qasim Beg, who was a legal heir of about half of the ancestral estate of Qadian and had been deprived of his share by Ghulam Murtaza, sued in the Court. Since he knew that Mirza brothers would not agree to give his due share to him, he sold out his share of property to Mirza Azam Beg, an Assistant Commissioner in Lahore. With the financial support of Azam Beg, he won the case in the Punjab Chief Court, the final appellate authority in civil and criminal cases. Mirza brothers were left with no alternative except to make the plea in their defense that they were bound to follow Mughal customs and traditions and not Islamic laws of inheritance in transfer and sale of their ancestral property. It was a shrewd attempt on the part of Mirza Ghulam Qadir and Mirza Ghulam Ahmed to deprive Mirza Ghaus of his genuine share of property. Mirza Ghulam Ahmed, who subsequently claimed to be a prophet (Nabi) and a ‘champion’ of Islam, preferred to follow family customs and not Islamic laws to usurp the share of Mirza Ghaus’ property. According to traditions, Mirza Ghaus could only sell the property if he had to arrange the marriage of his son or had any other justifiable need. Since he was issue less and no other genuine need existed, he could not sell his property to others. The court rejected their plea and decided the case in favour of Mirza Ghaus.
The prolonged litigation pushed Mirza family on the verge of financial disaster. Ghulam Qadir could not survive the humiliation and loss of property and died in 1883. The control of the remaining property went into the hands of his widow. Mirza Ghulam Ahmad had a little voice in family affairs. He was busy in carving out his own empire.
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad says he led a miserable life after the death of his father. He was virtually a pauper and an utterly disappointed person. His elder brother controlled the whole property and used its income for his own well being and refused to give him a few rupees even to pay the subscription of a journal. Ghulam Qadir’s wife was equally harsh to him and looked down upon him. The wife of Mirza Ghulam Ahmed, Hurmat Bibi alias 'Phajjey di maan', had also a very difficult time with him as he suffered from ill health, psychological abnormalities and financial distress. The treatment meted out to him during these formative years had a great bearing on his future life and gives an insight into his future claims.
By the end of 1880, he was actively busy in compilation of his book, Braheen-i-Ahmadiyya. The death of his elder brother Mirza Ghulam Qadir in 1883 left the field open for him. He swiftly moved towards his desired end, the claim of prophethood. Fealty to the British Raj and condemnation of Jehad 47 were the hallmark of his career. He attended to his assigned job with full devotion and had always been proud of the services he rendered for the consolidation of the colonial Empire in India and other parts of the world.
At the Cairo Missionary Conference in 1906, a Christian Missionary stated:
Tazkirah, the Qadiani ‘Bible’, carries a lot of rubbish and absurd material unheard of in the history of holy men. The revelations are in Arabic, Urdu, Persian, English, Hebrew, a Hindi and Punjabi. The language is poor, vague and incorrect. In fact, a large part of it is a hotch potch having no specific meanings. Qadianis put these utterances to numerous interpretations to support the prophethood of Mirza. Some revelations are in numerals and figures and others in an unknown language, which the recipient himself admits not to have understood them. This mumbo jumbo reflects the inner feelings, emotional crises and mental retardation of the claimant. Since Mirza had been afflicted with various diseases during his lifetime like hysteria, vertigo, diabetes, migraine, colic, tuberculosis, melancholia, sexual debility, acute and persistent dysentery etc. He developed some abnormalities in him. He was a mentally deranged person yet by all means a wicked and conscious impostor and henchman of alien powers. He was absolutely clear about his political mission. In all of his works the underlying theme is fealty to the British, condemnation of Jehad, desire to see the Muslim World under Imperialist subjugation and a passion to render services for the consolidation of the British Empire in India. He uses an extremely harsh language for his critics and opponents but remains very polite and subservient to his alien masters. There is not a single revelation, prophecy, dream etc. which goes in any way against the political interests of the British or condemns their misdeeds as a colonial power. Every word that he claimed to have received from God is pro-British and anti-Islamic in its orientation. His God is happy over the enslavement of the Muslims and the economic prosperity of the Britishers.
It has become manifestly clear on the basis of solid evidences that Ahmadiyya movement owes its origin to Imperialist and Jewish backings. Jewish influence and their money coupled with the secret ecclesiastical funds of the British Government watered the Ahmadiyya sapling to grow into a big tree. They employed a surrogate to launch this subversive movement to fulfill their Imperialist ends and to create a schism in the body politic of Islam by striking at the unity of Muslim world.
The first volume of the book carries two Persian poems and a lengthy announcement in which it had been claimed that if any one would dare to refute his arguments in favour of Islam he would be committed to pay him Rs.10,000 as a reward. It was a tall and absurd claim as his son Mirza Bashir Ahmad later remarked that he could advance not a single argument in favour of Islam.54
He launched this book from a commercial point of view and to establish his ‘Islamic’ credentials. The price of the book was announced to be Rs.5 but it was doubled afterwards and then raised to Rs.25. He wanted to fix a price at Rs.100 but subsequently dropped the idea. Appeals were made to the Muslims of India to send advance payments. It was promised to bring fifty volumes of the books but he could only publish five volumes, first four untill 1884 and the fifth one after a lapse of 23 years which appeared after his death in 1908. 55 (In the preface of fifth volume he wrote: At first I had intended to write this book in 50 volumes but was contended to write 5… the difference between 5 and 50 is a mere DOT, therefore the promise of 50 is fulfilled after writing this 5th volume") 56
Braheen-e-Ahmadiyya carries a large number of his interesting revelations, visions and inspirations. He used this stuff as a raw material with a view to realizing his nefarious religo-political designs. In fact, he laid claim to prophethood from the start in a concealed manner.57 Neither the time was ripe nor could he invite the wrath of Indian Muslims at the initial stage of the Ahmadiyya drama.
In volume III of the book he eloquently praised the British rule and introduced his family as the most sincere and loyal servants of British Imperialism. He emphatically claimed to be a recipient of divine revelations and declared that Jehad had been forbidden by God against the British Government. He also put forth a proposal that the Anjuman-i-Islam, Lahore, (private body devoted to the cause of Islam) and its branches should acquire fatwas (religious decrees) against Jehad from all prominent ulema of India and get them published in a book under the caption 'A Bunch of Letters From The Ulema of India' for wider distribution in the Punjab especially in the North West of India, in order to rebut Dr.Hunter's charges made in his book, Indian Musalmans and to root out the belief of Jehad from the hearts of warring Muslims.58
The Muslims of India suspected the intention of Mirza and reacted sharply over his writings carrying praise for the British rule in India and his aspiration for its establishment in other parts of the Muslim world. In volume IV of his book he confessed that many persons had strongly objected to and even rebuked him for his advocacy of the British rule in India.59 However since he had been motivated by the injunctions of the Holy Quran and the sayings of the Prophet (p.b.o.h) he could not change his mind, he argued.
The book received some appreciation from certain quarters because it was wrongly taken as an attempt to defend Islam in its own way by a claimant of Islamic revivalism. However cautious Muslim scholars came out with their apprehensions concerning the religious claims of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad. They believed him a hypocrite and slanderer working on a political mission.
After publication of the book, he attended to his private life. He had enough money to live a lavish life. Some of his close associates objected to it. They deplored that their hard earned and miserly saved money given for the ‘propagation of Islam’ had been spent on purchasing the jewellery of Mirza’s (second) wife.60 Such solitary voices were stifled.
In 1884, at the age of 50, he thought of his second marriage. He had two sons: Mirza Sultan Ahmad and Mirza Fazal Ahmad from his first wife. Although he lamented over his bad health and suffered from many chronic diseases like tuberculosis, diabetes and migraine, and had claimed to lose all interest in the other sex, he announced to have received a revelation of a second marriage with Khadija.61 On 17 November 1884 the marriage was celebrated with Nusrat Jehan, the daughter of Mir Nasar Nawab, a petty clerk in Irrigation Department, Lahore, who opposed Mirza for a long tome when he made tall religious claims. Mirza also yearned for the third marriage (to fulfil his 'God-sent revelation' that he will marry a widow. However that prophecy did not materialise till his death despite repeated reassurances from God. 62) but was so much bogged down in Muhammadi Begum love scandal that he could not pursue the idea further.
In 1885, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad claimed to be a mujaddid and a reformer of the age. The next year he went to Hoshiarpur to go into retreat at some solitary place for 40 days. Having completed this period, he published an announcement of 20 February 1886 that a handsome and pure boy would be bestowed on him. His name would be Emmanuel and Bashir. He would be the manifestation of the First and the Last, a manifestation of the True and the High, as if Allah had descended from Heavens. The son was born but he died early. 63 However his son, Mirza (Bashirduddin) Mahmud Ahmad, borned later, subsequently claimed to be the Promised son, the Musleh Maood in 1944 through an absurd interpretation of Mirza’s vague writings and by dint of his own revelations.
On 1st December 1888, Mirza announced that God had commanded him to accept ba'at (oath of allegiance) and form a Jamat (Organisation). The bayat form meant to induct a new member gave ten conditions for entering into Ahmadiyya Jamaat. Of these, the fourth condition, although general in nature, made it imperative on every Ahmadi to be loyal to the British Government. He formally took bai'at on 23 March, 1889 at Ludhiana.
Mirza Mahmud throws light on the significance of fourth condition of induction into the Jamaat:
Sir Fredrick Cunningham, Commissioner and Superintendent of Peshawar District wrote in 1900 to Mirza:
In his present to the Queen, he in a humble way, gave a short background note explaining the political services of his family in 1857 and post-Mutiny period till he took up the ‘stupendous’ task of serving the cause of the empire. He then enumerated his services and posed himself as a well wisher, a lickspittle and an extremely loyal servant of the ‘British Empire. He eagerly awaited an acknowledgement from the Queen and when we conferred her recognition on him, he was overjoyed and expressed his utmost thanks for her act of gratitude. 70
The day of Queen Victoria’s Diamond Jubilee brought a wave of indignation for the British colonialists in India. On the evening of the Jubilee Day, two Europeans, Mr.Rand of the Indian civil Service and Lt. Ayerst, on their way home from a reception at Government House, were shot dead by a Hindu Brahmin. It was a political assassination and an extreme way to express resentment against the British rule in India.
Queen Victoria died on 22 January 1901, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad was deeply grieved at the death of his godmother. He sent the following telegram to the British Government:
The Spy ‘prophet’ also submitted a petition to the Governor General of India offering his services to expose the ‘ill wishers of God-sent British Government’ and earnestly declared that in the ‘Khutba’ (sermon) of the Friday prayer, the blessings of the British Raj should be narrated by the ulema. It was submitted that a list of ‘anti-British, foolish and rebel ulema of the India prepared by Qadiani (intelligence) sources could be given to the Government, if so desired. It could be kept as a state secret by the wise Government for future action’, Mirza emphasized. He also gave specimen of a Performa to record the name of such anti-British ulema. It carried the columns of name, place, rewards, etc. 74
Besides his spy work, he engaged the ulema in useless theological controversies in a very clever way. He used an abusive and provocative language against them and resorted to their character assassination. After launching a crusade against the Jehadist ulema who had been fighting against the British Imperialists in India, he entered into an open conflict with Hindu and Christian religious leaders to push up the communal frenzy in accordance with the British policy of ‘divide and rule’.
By cleverly engaging the ulema in theological discussions he succeeded in diverting their target of attack from the British Imperialism to Ahmadiyya heresy. He predicted death and humiliation for his opponents and when his prophecies proved false he gave far-fetched and absurd interpretations to those utterances. He always cut a sorry figure. An outstanding feature of his character was shameless insistence on fulfillment of his every prophecy. By standard of judgement it can be safely said that even Jeane Dixon predicts far better than him. She is accurate in most of her statements. Mirza’s oft-repeated prophecies, the mainstay of his prophethood, dwelt at length on his financial gains, receiving money orders, gifts and subscriptions, on the humiliation and death of his enemies, and on his success in the field of litigation.75
One of his interesting prophecies related to his ‘marriage’ with Muhammadi Begum, a beautiful and attractive girl and his near relative. It was prophesied that she would ultimately become his bride. But it could not happen. He predicted death for any person who would dare to marry her. He called her a heavenly bride in his prophecies. Despite all techniques of blackmail, intimidation and persuasion, her father did not succumb to Mirza’s wishes. This scandal afforded an excuse to his Hindu and Christian opponents to hurl attacks on the pious life of our Holy Prophet (p.b.o.h) and a champion of Islam. Muhammadi Begum was married to Mirza Sultan Muhammad during Mirza’s lifetime.76
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad entered into religious controversies with Christian and Hindu religious leaders in a peculiar way. He threw challenges of prayer duels, put out revelations in their condemnation and used abusive language to provoke them to retaliate against him. His crusade resulted in the appearance of many slanderous works against Islam.78
The Punjab Government closely watched the religious controversies ranging in the Punjab among different groups and sects. Mirza Ghulam Ahmad’s activities in promoting religious antagonism were particularly reported to the higher British officials. In 1893, he entered into a religious controversy with Rev.Henry Martin Clark, a Medical Missionary in-charge of Amritsar District. As a result of it, a debate took place at Amritsar between Mirza and Abdullah Athim, a Muslim convert to Christianity and the former Extra Assistant Commissioner, Sialkot. In the proceedings of the Home Department, Government of the Punjab, the details of a series of meetings have been given which were held in order to ‘discuss religious topics concerning Mohammadans and Christians.’ The speakers on the side of the latter were Mr. Abdullah Athim and Rev. Henry Martin Clark and other side was represented by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian. The contest lasted for a fortnight without any material result in favour of either party. Mirza, however, threatened the speakers of the opposite faith with premature death within fifteen months, as a punishment revealed to him by God in a dream failing which he consented to be disgraced and hanged for having persisted in upholding falsehood.79
The deadline of fifteen months ended on 4 September 1894. Athim did not die. Christian missionaries jeered at Ahmadis and condemned the Qadiani impostor. Mirza shamelessly insisted on the fulfillment of his prophecy stating that Athim had saved himself by turning towards the truth.
The Civil & Military Gazette, Lahore, under the heading - A Dangerous Fanatic wrote:
Lala Lajpat Rai, an Arya Samaj leader states:
Dr. Clark’s case helped to dispel the commonly held belief that Mirza had employed agents to murder his opponents to fulfil his prophecies. He continued to throw challenges of prayer duels to his enemies and prophecised their humiliation and death till he was ordered by the Punjab Government on 24 February 1899 to refrain from publishing any prediction involving the disgrace of any person and representing him as the object of Divine wrath.83 The order was meant to check the heat generated by the religious frenzy and to appease his opponents who were the followers of Muhammad Hussain Batalvi. There was no change in the British policy. It was a stop gap measure. Mirza, the loyal agent of the British Empire, faithfully obeyed the order. He did not utter a word quite for sometime. Had he been sent by God and had He revealed His will to him, he would not have kept mum. This proves that the Qadiani danced to the tunes of his British masters. He was the mouthpiece of Imperialism and had no divine mission except to fulfil the political designs of the British colonialists.
Dr. Ahmad Shah, an apostate lived in London. The British planted him as Medical Officer in Ladakh before he settled in Britain. He wrote a book attacking the Pious wives of the Holy Prophet (p.b.o.h). The British intelligence managed to get this book published at RP Mission Press, Gujranwala, Punjab. One thousand copies of the book entitled Umhat-ul-Mominin were distributed freely to injure the susceptibilities of the Muslims and create hatred among Christian and Muslim communities of India.
The Anjuman-I-Himayat-I-Islam, Lahore, sent a memorandum to the government on 26 April 1898 demanding that the book should be confiscated.84 Mirza also sent a memorandum on 4 May 1898 requesting the government that the book should not be proscribed. He argued that a reply to the book should instead be prepared. He criticized the Anjuman’s move and asked the government to ignore the said memorial.85
Religious frenzy continued to grow in India. The religious leaders ignored all norms of decency to launch abusive attacks on the persons of their rivals and their beliefs. In that charged atmosphere, Mirza sent another memorial to Lord Elgin, the Viceroy of India, in October 1898. He proposed a code of ethics for the controvertialists, to curtail the use of abusive language in religious controversies, by bringing them under the purview of law.86 He apprehended that too much heat generated by religious controversies would pose a danger to the benign rule of the British Government and might lead to political unrest. The vile and abusive writings could provoke Muslim fanatics to take up arms against the British rule, like that of 1857 upheaval. The memorial was meant to check political upsurge and to suggest the Imperialist masters to review their policy of neutrality in religious matters in the light of emerging political realities. The proposal was given out of sheer loyalty and love for the British masters but the British Government rejected Mirza’s proposal and did not take any action on it.87
AR Dard throws light on the political significance of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad’s move:
Mirza dared not suggest that Christian missions had their roots in imperial expansion, that so long as Imperialism endured, its missionary adjuncts must remain, and that Antichrist could not die while Imperialism lived. He blessed Imperialism and cursed its child. He swallowed the camel and strained at the gnat.90
In response to Mirza Ghulam Ahmad’s abusive writings and disgraceful prophetic utterances, a class of Muslim ulema planned to pay him in the same coin.91 That brought him further notoriety, yet their counter offensive forced him to seek the protection of law against the Molvis who stood in his way. He, in fact, wanted to inveigle government into a partisan alliance as his prophethood lacked stamina to fight its way through opposition and could not take its chance unaided. He had not the faith that could spring from a righteous cause. He was afraid of the struggle for existence that thinned out misfits. He knew that his prophethood could not weather the storm. That is why he knelt before the British and supplicated for support. He wanted England to look upon his prophethood as her adoptive and spoon-fed child.92